Bullet Point Essay

WORLD WAR I
  1. American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) 
    1. "right revolution'
      1. "Its efforts helped to give meaning to traditional civil liberties like freedom of speech and invented new ones, liked the right to privacy." (Foner 620)
    2. "The arrest of antiwar dissenters under the Espionage and Sedition Acts inspired the formation in 1917 of the Civil Liberties Bureau" (Foner 620) which later became the ACLU
    3. Before WWI the Supreme Court only protected the beliefs of the unpopular minorities; however, the ACLU was enacted to question the limits on political and economic dissent.
      1. Government went after people's rights to free speech and liberty
    4. First Amendment 
      1. claimed to not present Congress from prohibiting free speech
      2. Schench v. United States
        1. Supreme Court convicted based on a speech condemning WWI
  2. Kansas Law
    1. free speech
      1. Conviction of Jacob Abrams and 5 other men
        1. Russia
      2. "... a court minority committed to a broader defense of free speech." (Foner 621)
    2. civil-liberties decision slowly began to renegotiate. 
    3. Kansas city law: it is "a crime to advocate unlawful acts to change in the political or economic system" (foner 621)
    4. went beyond political expression 
More on WWI:
  1. After World War I the government was trusted more by progressivisms, and was thought to enhance the enjoyment of freedom.
  2. "Wartime and postwar repression, Prohibition, and the pro-business policies of the 1920s all illustrated, in the eyes of many Progressives, how public power could go grievously wrong." (Foner 619)
  3. "This lesson opened the door to a new appreciation of civil liberties- right an individual may assert democratic majorities- as essential elements of American freedom" (Foner 619) 
    1. As time led on this new found "freedom" allowed US citizens to gain a 'louder' voice in society
    2. Although artists were being limited during wartime they still had artistic expression
  4. Security began to become a little too cautious when the Hays Code was enacted; to prevent long kisses and nudity
    1. How was this protecting American's during a time of war?
    2. Lost generation

WAR ON TERROR
  1. USA PATRIOT Act
    1. Raised the issue of balancing security and liberty of American Citizens
      1. Act was enacted in the following days after the 9/11 attacks
      2. "unprecedented powers on law enforcement agencies charged with preventing the new, vaguely defined crime of 'domestic terrorism', including the authority to wiretap, spy on citizens, open letters, read e-mail, and obtain personal records from third parties like universities and libraries without the knowledge of the suspect." (foner 883)
        1. the restricted rights of Americans through the CIA, FBI, Secret Service, and Police post 9/11 attacks
      3. 5,000 foreigners with a middle east connection were detained
        1. many with no connection to the terror attacks.
        2. 1,200 were arrested
  2. Guantanamo Bay
    1. Bush Administration in November 2001 "issued an executive order authorizing the holding of secret military tribunals for non-citizens deemed to have assisted terrorism."(Foner 883)
      1. no right to a lawyer and abuse/ torture were administered. 
      2. The ethics of torture
    2. Al Qaeda 
      1. "unlawful combatants
    3. Geneva Convention 
      1. Torture and rights
More on the War on Terror:
  1. Bakke Case
    1. Supreme Court 5-4 decision 
      1. upheld the right to take race into account when making college acceptance decisions
      2. diverse student body
      3. ACT and SAT would still be pertinent 
  2. Lawrence v. Texas
    1. 6-3 Supreme Court decision
      1. declared unconstitutional to consider homosexuality and crime
      2. 1986
      3. freedom of expression 

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